Archive for August 2011


Ceramic Tile: From History To Modernity

Secrets of success of Spanish artists have their roots in the Middle Ages, when the first factory, borrowed technology and ceramic glazes and blending in the eastern nations, began to produce first mosaic, later production expands, more and more oriented to the mass market and began to produce ceramic plates, later transformed into ceramic tiles. Italian masters adopted the art of making tiles from the Venetians, are the first in medieval Europe, merchants and travelers. However, despite similar motives and technology, Spanish and Italian schools of manufacturing glazes, and ceramic and patterning have evolved in different directions. Speaking of Spanish tile, it is worth mentioning pronounced Iranian and Moorish influence, in fact up to the expulsion of Muslims from Spanish ceramic tile production secrets they possessed only the Arabs, and only under duress, they were forced to share these secrets with the Spaniards. Italian tile, technologies and techniques production which was once simply kidnapped from the Spaniards, however, has pronounced differences. If the Spanish tile manufactured for quality and strength, the Italians made a major emphasis on elegance forms and the beauty of the picture. However, quality Italian tiles are often inferior to Spanish. Classical Spanish and Italian tiles for centuries was a wall.

Wall tiles decorated and ennobled both interior and facades. In those days the floor was covered with the homes of traditional parquet or natural stone. Floor tile appeared relatively recently, and her appearance contributed to the development technology. Complex process has yielded an unusually strong ceramic tile, which was the secret of strength in that its composition was added granite dust. This floor tile has name porcelanosa, under the name of the special clay, which served as a key component for its manufacture – portselana. To date, Italian and Spanish ceramic tile can be found everywhere. Any shop tiles is in the range of at least a few samples of Italian and Spanish tiles. Best Italian tiles for floors and walls are products under the brand name and Fap Ceramiche Viva Ceramica. The best Spanish firms for the manufacture of ceramic Tiles are Perodna and Porcelanosa.

Hewlett Packard

A list of useful professional ideal device for many of our fellow citizens recognized by computer devices. However, traditional computer can take a lot of free space and different mobility. Thus, the optimal solution – a transportable electronic brain or laptop. Most of the global leaders in manufacturing laptops for quite a long time shown on the domestic market, and moreover not merely deliver their products, but also to ensure all required maintenance. So, when you think you get a laptop Acer, preferably just curious, where there is nearest service center that serves such equipment. When searching for the service center will be very careful because it is easier to spend an extra hour on the road to a licensed service center than cash to buy a new laptop.

We service salon license required to work directly with the selected brand of personal computers. Otherwise the situation for the manufacturer's warranty service the laptop will be terminated, as if the owner himself opened the housing in case of damage. Probably the most common manufacturer of office electronics these days is Hewlett Packard. Scanner and Copier this manufacturer is available in almost every showroom. So that HP notebooks very appreciated for their merit and excellence.

In addition, hp laptops are characterized by extraordinary design, which is also ensure its attractiveness in the eyes of prospective buyers. In addition it is no secret that every piece of portable, though a mobile phone, wrist chronometer or a lighter, a component of the style continues to be a person who is its owner. Of course potential customers a personal computer is not always able to boast the broadest economic opportunities. In this situation the best way – not to stop excellent brands popular pc, and a slightly less well known. Thus, by the way, if you plan to choose a laptop Lenovo, then do not pay for a popular brand, and pay for only the computer itself. Although the purchase of computers is not very popular brands of problems can occur, for example, to search for parts in case of need repair. In addition, small producers rarely have their own service centers, thus adjusting for will need to apply to the universal service centers. Of course, the purchase of digital technology, like any other sophisticated equipment, we recommend carefully consider all the positive and negative aspects. And most accept solutions only as a result of careful study of the market sector. Exclusively in this situation you will probably have an opportunity to really perfect for his needs and financial capabilities solution.

Perfect Hair

But this method is associated with the risk of a pretty significant burns to the adjacent skin cells, up to the emergence of scarring and other problems. With electrolysis hair follicle is destroyed by an electric current is very thin needle that is inserted into the skin. This procedure is neither quick nor painless, besides result depends on the skill of the specialist performing the procedure. With the technological advancements in laser technology has come cosmetology and laser hair removal has become one of the most popular methods of laser cosmetology. With laser hair removal hair follicle is destroyed by heating during the absorption of laser light dark skin pigment – melanin.

For a long time, laser hair removal is recommended only for people with fair skin and dark hair – this combination can significantly reduce the risk of burns. And, of course, laser hair removal is not suited to people and dark skinned people with very fair hair. To date, Laser technology has advanced significantly and the company's engineers have developed a technique LINLINE GmbH laser hair removal, which eliminates the risk of burns to people of all skin colors and hair. This is the only unique in the world laser hair removal technology that could be used even by people with dark skin. Laser technology LINLINE operates strictly selective – are affected only by the hair, skin cells are damaged. This technique is not require refrigeration, which is binding in any other devices, and therefore absolutely no risk of adverse effects. Laser technology – is not only safe and highly hair removal, laser cosmetic clinic specialists LINLINE offer a number of other procedures based on laser technology – laser peels, photo rejuvenation, acne treatment, and others. Laser techniques in the first place distinguished by the fact that the skin is not damaged, it is non-invasive sparing technique, but at the same time giving great results, it is capable of replacing means of plastic surgery. Its specialists LINLINE, having in its arsenal of unique technologies (which are no longer in any other clinic!), to help you solve any cosmetic problems and achieve the perfect body quickly and safely.

Marine Research

Siguryonsson, T. Sigurdsson Institute of Marine Research, Reykjavik, Iceland is generally accepted that, in addition to data on fishing activities for the effective management of fish stocks is very important biological data. The required level of knowledge depends on the particular species of fish and intensity of exploitation reserves. This paper focuses on three main examples fisheries management of the Northeast Atlantic: fishing letnenerestuyuschey herring off Iceland, the Icelandic cod fishery and the pelagic fishery for redfish in the Irminger Sea. Managing a local herring stock letnenerestuyuschey by means of long-accepted fishing strategy, based on the optimal level of exploitation (F0, 1), which resulted in full restoration of previously eroded the stock of herring in the last 30 years and reached a relatively stable catch, not reacting to fluctuations in recruitment, commercial factors, or mistakes in evaluating a stock.

Icelandic cod stock was subjected to intensive use for over 50 years. It still represents the single most important stock exploitation and managed by Iceland. For decades, this craft carefully tracked and studied. In the past 10 years, the management of this reserve in accordance with clearly designated and approved strategy of long-term yield, developed by biologists and economists together with representatives of the fishing industry. This increased the efficiency of inventory management, but requires more serious measures to ensure more rational use of stock due to excessively high intensity of fishing for a long time, and increased uncertainty in stock assessment than expected. International fishing pelagic Irminger Sea perch is an example of how the scientific basis remains unsatisfactory despite the considerable efforts of scientists, made in recent years. Here we can not just answer a question about the status of the stock, while our knowledge about the reproduction of the stock is very limited. This suggests a more cautious approach in the management of reserves than was made previously.

Thus, the stock is in a dangerous condition due to poor management caused by the lack of scientific knowledge and insufficient response to the relevant authorities. These three control schemes show how important evidence-based biological data about exploited stocks in order to achieve effective management. They suggest that moderately exploited stocks is much less responsive to excessive operation related to mismanagement or lack of scientific knowledge about their basic parameters than the supply, constantly subjected to over-exploitation. In addition, they show the need to integrate signs of over-exploitation or insufficient scientific data to implement the precautionary approach in determining management measures. FISHING IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC: REALITY AND PROSPECTS.

Use Engineering Research

Drilling – a method of understanding the world. The desire of knowledge of the planet is observed for many centuries. The main object of the study was to land. It was interesting to understand what is under the ground, whether there is life and is it possible to drill through the planet. Our fathers and grandfathers had hoped to solve one of the major mysteries of the planet. This show guns that were found during archaeological excavations. Salt, oil and gas is produced in such a way as drilling. Drilling is not only informative but also practical.

Reading the works of famous Chinese philosopher Confucius, which date from the six hundredth year of BC, there is an opportunity to learn about Chinese wells for the extraction of water and salt solutions. These wells were constructed with the help of percussive drilling. Their length of nine meters. Drilling in Russia were used in the IX century. This was associated with the production of salt in the area of the city Staraya Russa (Novgorod region). With discovery of oil in the Caucasus in 1848, was built oil well. Drilling method used to conduct engineering surveys for construction.

Because people have decided to use drilling is not just for mining, but also for sampling the ground in places of future buildings. At the moment there are types of work as engineering-geological surveys, engineering and geodetic survey engineering and environmental surveys. It is known that drilling in the history played an important role, Leonardo da Vinci. He, in spite of the fact that he was a talented artist who is seriously interested in drilling. Leonardo da Vinci invented The following types of jobs – engineering survey. He was the creator of the masses of various devices for engineering research, and created drawings of rigs to help carry out research. During the life of Leonardo were built ten machines for this process as horizontal drilling. They are still of great interest to builders from the technical point of view. The French, using the wizard, became the first in the construction market. Now with the help of engineering research specialists can make a special map of natural and manmade features of an area where construction will take place. Engineering surveys allow humanity meet not only the practical necessity, but also to protect the ecological balance of the planet. On the website of 'PetroBurServis' provides detailed information on engineering surveys for construction.

Flat Roof Constructions

The roof – the largest source of heat loss of the building, so how well insulated roof, depends largely on energy-saving features of the building. Application of modern thermal insulation – slabs extruded polystyrene Primaplex – can effectively solve problems of thermal insulation of flat roofs. As a result, significantly reduces the cost of heating and cooling buildings. The main advantages of plates Primaplex, which are often decisive in the choice of thermal insulation in flat roof constructions: * Low thermal conductivity. The structure of the plates Primaplex, is a system of tiny isolated cell filled with Fixed gas defines a very low thermal conductivity material; * Durability. High strength plates Primaplex compression allows you to use them not only in classical applications with moderate requirements strength, but also in cases of extreme conditions * The minimum water absorption. The main factor influencing long-term thermal insulation characteristics of insulation, is its resistance to penetration water or moisture. Moisture may be in contact with insulation not only during construction but also during the entire period of the building.

Moisture absorbed by the insulation material, greatly reduces its thermal resistance. The system of closed cells and the lack of cavities makes plates Primaplex more resistant to water penetration and moisture than any other type of insulation * Low weight. Because the cells that constitute the core of plates Primaplex, filled with light gas (air), the material has a low density (30-35 kg/m3), which makes it very easy to use. Weight standard package does not exceed 10 kg, so the material can be easily moved around the construction site, raise the roof. Primaplex easily cut with a knife or a saw with fine teeth; * Durability. The ability of insulation boards Primaplex perform their functions during the lifetime of the building (30-50 years), the stability of its characteristics such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, low water absorption, and lack of corrosion and resistance to multiple cycles of freezing and thawing makes them durable.


Sharpening tile is on a special machine and hydraulic. The frequency of disc rotation during grinding of stone slabs should be high enough to avoid chipping the glaze on the tile. When docking tiles and acrylic baths (abutting the side of acrylic bathtubs and walls, tiled) there is a serious problem in filling the tub with water is deformed, its edges away from the walls, respectively, when you wash, the water falling on the walls, dripping on the floor. Conventional methods of sealing this seam is not help because almost any material, glued to the acrylic does not stay on deformation. To avoid this, we devised a very efficient way. On the wall where the tub is installed, tile is laid to the floor, and to the edge bath. Further, under the last row of tiles laid T-shaped plastic profile with a fairly hard edge, the second plane of this profile, pre-lubricate with silicone, lies with the board of the bath. Then bath jack so that the board close to the edge of the tile rested.

Thus, the profile is trapped between the wall tiles and bath board. When filling it with water, even if deformation occurs, it does not affect the junction leakage and the side walls of the bath. Tiles laid on a special tile adhesive, with proper installation and smooth walls and floors of adhesive consumption is around 25 kg to 4-5 m Grout joints mezhplitochnyh by a special grout. The ceilings in the modern interior is almost an integral part. But not always in the draft is laid ceiling just for aesthetic reasons. Very often vertical drop from the ceiling about zero up to large enough quantities, and therefore mounting the ceiling is made only for practical reasons. The same applies to old houses, in which 'Native' ceiling is a poor foundation for plastering his (wooden floors, old w / w floors with a large depreciation, etc.).

Acrylic Material

Water-dispersed acrylic material – the invention sufficiently known. The first related to the development of twentieth and thirties, but then their development has prevented World War II. Triumphal procession waterborne acrylic materials began immediately after the war, and it was understandable, because many had to be restored and for limited funds. Unfortunately, the "iron curtain" was and is an insurmountable obstacle. Soviet industry has not gone further than PVA glue, bustilat and primitive water-dispersion paints based on PVA, suitable only for malootvetstvennyh works. As a result, the Soviet Union left behind in these matters, forcing its citizens paint everything banal oil paint, putty and glue the oil-filler, while in Europe all this has long been a subject of folk tales. Because of the backlog in the production of advanced materials, there serious lag in construction technology.

Builders were forced to work not with what you need and the fact that there is. When in the early nineties, the situation began to change radically, the builders were largely not willing to develop new water-dispersion acrylic materials. Most textbooks on the subject seriously out of date, many aspects were not covered at all in our literature and have been very strong stereotypes about the poor level of quality of water-dispersed materials. Water-dispersed materials are produced mainly based on three types of dispersions: polyvinyl acetate (PVA), styrene-butadiene (BS) Acrylic (AK). All three types have their advantages and disadvantages. Since the dispersion of PVA is indispensable in adhesives for wood, but the colors on the basis of their nevodostoykie and therefore have a very narrow scope, despite the low price.

True, there are different Water-resistant PVA copolymers, yet they are inferior in color acrylic dispersions and their cost is quite high. Butadiene dispersions in good adhesives that require water resistance, but have limited light resistance, which makes them undesirable for use outside of work. Paint on this type of variance inexpensive, but can only be used inside buildings. Acrylic dispersion is more expensive than listed above, but they are the most versatile. It is no accident that Europe is based on acrylic dispersions is more than 70% of all manufactured inks. It should be noted that the acrylic water-dispersion paints are not only tightly captured construction market in Europe, but also invade the more sophisticated industries such as automobile and shipbuilding. What is the advantage over oil and alkyd paints: 1) Durability. Acrylic paint on the facade is 8 – 12 years, some cases – up to 30 years, oil 1.5 – 3 years, alkyd 3 – 5 years. 2) Environmental safety. Paints do not emit harmful substances (primarily solvents) as the substrate, and in operation. 3) Good hygienic properties. Paints form a "breathable" coating, permeable to vapor, but impermeable to liquids. 4) Fire – and explosion protection, both during storage and application, and during the operation. 5) Easy and convenient to use. Paint dry 30-40 minutes at room temperature and normal humidity. 6) Affordability. Environmental, fire safety and hygienic water-dispersion paints was the reason for the prohibition by law in several North American states, solvents, paints in all areas of construction. In Europe, also published a number of laws restricting the use of materials on the basis of solvents. Russia, though with lag, but also moving in the right direction. For example, there are restrictions on the use of materials on the solvent in children's hospitals.

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