Hayden White

Destarte, the importance of the look is the first step for an day that if considers to investigate the other. One to look at that the researcher it directs its interlocutors, to understand the reality surrounding from its experiences, to perceive the images that are beyond only the visa, or shown, to understand the direction that perpassa the imagination. One to also look at that it intends to catch nuances, the emotions, the pauses, said and not said, the visible one and invisible, the not less important one, but that it will need a sensitivity sharpened more to become perceivable. To understand another one and multiple realities that surrounds in them if makes in contact with experiences, passages individual that molds our vises of world, that they lead to a necessity of magnifying of the tolerance, of abrangncia of the conflict and dialogue fields, of between-places. A moment that becomes possible the experimentation and reflection on the innumerable possibilities and position of one same citizen, or different citizens, allowing new relations with the spaces. Find out detailed opinions from leaders such as Click here by clicking through. An activity is perceived in the craft of the historian that would be at the same time poetical, scientific and philosophical, incorporating in its argumentativa narrative models of literary analyses, as it places Hayden White: (…) it has had a reluctance in considering the historical narratives as what they more manifestly are: verbal fictions, whose contents so are invented as discovered, and whose forms have more in common with its counterparts in the literature that in science. But this is not equivalent, for the author, to take the fiction verbal of history as speech destitute of value; in contrast, it means to admit that all form of knowledge contains elements of imagination and fiction. Against the accusation to destroy the difference between fact and fiction, and thus to open space for all historiogrfica adventure, Hayden White clarifies that its theory only redefines the relations between the two fields inside of the speeches: (…) if rude facts do not exist, but events under different descriptions, the factualidade becomes question of descriptive protocols to transform events into facts (…).


The practical one to sing hymns salmos in the meetings destined to practical the religious Christian, since its primrdios is registered in Mat. 26:30 and Sea. 14:16, where it says: ' ' I sing finished it of the Salmos, had left for the mount of the Oliveiras' '. The first centuries of the Christian church music acquired characteristics Greeks and of the oriental-hellenistic mixing societies of the Mediterranean, however, the Christians had looked for to reject them it the measure who increased the number of converted having, thus, for objective the disconnection with the heathen past. The Jewish inheritance proceeding from the origin of the proper Christianity is not confirmed by the historians, since it does not have documents that they can prove such affirmation. However, as GROUT and PELISCA (2007) have a parallelism enter the cults carried through between one and another religion, since the mass is a symbolic sacrifice and the Jews practised sacrifices in the temple.

The first memorial of finishes supper of Christ possesss characteristics of the Jewish meals of the days of party, as the ritual meal of the Passover, that was folloied for sung music, thus being able, to take in consideration the cultural way where the first Christians lived. This model of the Jewish meals lasted during the centuries in the Christian cult, which was taking characteristic proper. Some cantos and hymns, as the recitao of the Salmos, can have been preserved of unbroken form, as well as other melodies proceeding from the manuscripts of it sings old Roman, such cantos is considered one of the great treasures of the civilizations of the Ocidente. To the measure that the church goes becoming enlarged itself and acquiring characteristic proper, firming its proceletista character the cantos and hymns also start to take its elements destiguindo themselves of the profane one. The task to separate the profane one of the sacred one always was an exhausting activity of the church, this separation culminates in the idea of approach with the divine things.


The So Paulo laborers, denouncing facing the pelegos unions, they had unchained actions that had reed-echo in the Brazilian syndical fight. The unsatisfied syndical base with the performance of the pelegos of the cupola of the unions, not compromised with the interests of the laborers, in protest against this comodismo, such unchain strategical actions as: Operation Turtle deceleration of the production Commissions of 2 Plants. These strategies they had produced effect positives efficient, therefore, the So Paulo metallurgist with the mobilization movements had knocked down the pelegos unions and had started to fight against sustentculo of the Brazilian military dictatorship the wage wage freeze. The laborers had ignored the effective repressive syndical legislation, breaching, in the practical one, with the law antistrike initiating an performance that unleashed the syndical structure of the structure of the State. In this manner, they prepare land stops future stoppages, leaving of the phase of resistance for an ample movement of masses, followed for other categories, such as: doctors, bank clerks, public officers, among others, average segments of the society that had passed, with the end of the economic miracle, to quickly suffer the responsibility from the exploration, proletarizando itself. 1 Skin of the sheep with the used wool in the harnesses on which if it puts the saddle to soften the seat – word of contemptuous matrix, in the syndical movement (HOUAISS, 2001, p.2172). 2 the Commissions of Plants searched to approach the worker in its workstation, as well as stimulating the fight for conquest its rights. These Commissions had for objective to represent the specific interests of the laborers of each plant and become it great strategy of the new unionism. first Commission of Plant, officially recognized was of the Ford of Brazil, in Is Bernardo of the Field, in the 1981 strike (BRITO, 1983, p.


INTRODUCTION the starting point of this research is the development of the armaments through the conflicts. The technological advances had been bigger in elapsing of century XX, therefore in this century it had the two bigger world-wide catastrophes: first and World War II. World War II is a complex subject, with an immense variety of study objects. A subject not very explored is the strategical importance of the Air base of the Amap in this conflict. Most of the available sources in the Internet, for example, at least had not been written by Brazilian researchers, and yes for North Americans. The books only cite the air base, leaving to detach the events that had constructed its history. To the few, he is being constructed, through academic works, the rescue of the history of the Air base, but still it has the necessity to clarify its importance in amapaense history e, mainly, in the life of the remaining inhabitants of the times of the war.

The Second War was divided at two moments: offensive of the Axle and the counter-offensive of the allies. The first one is marked by the fast advance of the machine of German war on the countries of the Continental Europe. This period had beginning with the invasion of the Poland for the German troops and had its critical point during the German onslaughts against England, mainly for the sea, with the attacks of submarines the merchant ships that directed it the English ports. This golden period of the hegemony of Germany on the Continental Europe the same knew its first great revezes in 1942 in the north of Africa and during the beginning of the Soviet counter-offensive in Stalingrado in the end of year. As the period had as initial landmarks the surrender of the Sixth German Army in February of 1943 and first the great allied victories in the Battle of the Atlantic.

National Plan

It fits to stand out that one of the strategies of the National Plan of Education (2011-2020) is ' ' To keep national program of reorganization and acquisition of equipment for schools of the field, as well as of production of didactic material and formation of professors for the education of the field, with special attention to the classrooms multisseriadas' '. We believe that from the knowledge of the history of this Nesting let us obtain to produce some materials, the example of ' ' histories infantis' ' , pastimes (word-crossed and hunting-words), diverse activities, configuring the didactic book. We are working in the extension project that will become Real this proposal in the University of the State of the Bahia, Campus XV. It fits to mention despite the proposal of the production of didactic materials will be compromised to questions as sustainable development, cultural diversity and sort. How much to the question ' ' gnero' ' , the participation called our attention the seated D. Maria in the dynamics of the conquest and maintenance of the land. It is one of the women whom its seated identity values very of; she speaks with pride and emotion of the history of the nesting.

We think about elaborating an infantile history that counts its history. FINAL CONSIDERAES We observe in the interviews carried through with the seated ones that the first memories focaram events and experiences that the group of occupation lived deeply, the verbal register of the souvenirs left in the fight for the ownership of the land, of the marks printed in the body and the soul of these people. It does not have as not to perceive that the proximity with the city is about one ' ' hand way dupla' '. If on the other hand it facilitates the commerce, the access to the insumos and industrial goods, for another one, represent a problem in the construction of the identity of seated of the children and young.


The modern societies are, therefore, for definition, society of constant, fast and permanent change. This is the principaldistino between the societies ‘ ‘ tradicionais’ ‘ modernas’ ‘ 8. According to Hall, different of modern thinkers who saw aidentidade as steady and unified, in after-modernity this identity has semostrado each time more dislocated and broken up. The concept of identity developed here is not, therefore, a existencialista concept, but a strategical and positional concept. That is, of directly contrary form what it seems to be its semnticaoficial career, this conception of identity does not designate that steady nucleus of euque passes, of the beginning to the end, without any change, for all dahistria viscitude.

(Hall, 2007, p.108). In the specific case of the ciganas communities, we can observarque had always revealed cultural identities considered sufficiently peculiaresao group. According to Muniz (1995), even so they have promoted some alterations emseus customs to be able to interact of satisfactory form with the local society, the gypsies if it has shown capable to assure the basic traces of suaidentidade, not even the threat represented for the television, that influenciasobretudo the young with the dissemination of proper ideas of the world occidental person, will obtain to wound of irreversible form. PIERRONI (2006) affirms that, the people gypsy sings and danatanto in the joy as in the sadness, therefore for the gypsy the life is a party and anatureza that the most beautiful generous encircles it anfitri. Where it wants that they are osciganos are soon recognized for its clothes and ornaments, and, principalmentepor its noisy habits. They are a full people of energy and great dose depassionalidade. They are so peculiar inside of its proper code of ethics; honrae justice; sense, felt and feeling of freedom that infect and to incomodamqualquer system. The cigana community loves and respects the nature, the aged etodos the members of the group educates the children of all, inside of the proper principles enormas of a purely verbal tradition, whose sopassados teachings.

Portuguese Identity

Thus, conjuntode existing peoples in Brazil is represented by the indian, white and black, frutodos ethnic values of each one. That is, for the author, each culture influenciada for the regimen that is being submitted. In this space, the viviano indian tribal regimen, the Portuguese colonist in the feudal system and the black in a culturaprimitiva. Each one of these chains would result in the heterogeneidade that the Brasilvive today. The process of identity in Brazil does not have to be understood deformed homogenia, therefore as it places Renato Ortiz in ' ' Culture brasileirae identity nacional' ' , it does not exist authentic a national identity, massim a plurality of identities; that the process of ' ' aculturao' ' so argued, &#039 passes to be considered as one; ' transplantaocultural' ' , ' ' culture alienada' ' 10. For the construction of the work, the fonteoral use was necessary, through interviews, where deCoco of Lizard was possible to rescue the memory of the samba, next to older components of the group and the maisrecentes; of the coordinator of the association that showed the importance of the same one, for the spreading of the folclricos works; bibliographical sources that deramcorpo to the elaborated work. The folklore many times is related as to culturapopular in the ample direction of the word, on the look of the exotic one.

Its compromissocom the reality is divided in popularizing the culture scholar, dimming the popular culturado one. This relation clarividente is automatically transformed present cultural naseparao into the social context. The autonomy exerted popular pelacultura, through its spontaneous and traditional traces, danificada for being to the edge of the culture of the dominant ones. The possibility to register daily of people cujasuas histories if lost in the time, became a reality through avanosdas Sciences social human beings and. The transformation of sciences and its alargamentopossibilitou to think history not only as an exclusive photo only e, sobos effect of histories of heroes, of history only written, but recognize importance of the orality, as predominant factor to understand existing asidentidades in society.


They had been efectuados concomitant registers written, graphical (drawn to the scale 1:20) and photographic. The graphical register of the observed realities was efectuado with coordinate correspondents X, Y and Z. The photographic register happened in the diverse phases of the intervention, more exhaustingly possible. It stops all beyond the field work was, still, taken the handle a bibliographical research of the specialty, as well as other consultations understood for necessary to the study in cause, as well as institucional databases. Objectivos the archaeological works had been carried through in the estimated one to allow one better understanding of the observed reality, to determine eventual sequncias of occupation, good as well as allowing crono-culturalmente to integrate the archaeological vestiges through the study of the observed realities and the materials exhumed in elapsing of the intervention. The works objectivavam, still, to evaluate the patrimonial value, and scientific, of the existing archaeological context, form to determine the measures most appropriate it stops proteco/minimizao of impactes resultant of the implementation of the Projecto.

Archaeological works to the Pk the 131+326 archaeological works had been carried through under scientific direco of the Signatory, having for base what behind it was mentioned in regards to the used methodology and to the objectivos of this intervention. The works had initiated with the cleanness of the slope (cut) in the involving area to that one where the socket excavated in the rock was detected, of form to foil the existence of others not yet identified, what it was not come close to disclose. The cleanness of the cut allowed to assure that all the slope if constitutes of rocky outcrop (granite), which is covered, in its top, for a vegetal land layer of estratigrfica power very reduced. The works of hollowing of the interior of the structure had allowed to identify two estratigrficas units: a first one (UE 01) constituted of land layer of chestnut coloration, of argillaceous matrix, which contains sparing remaining portions of organic material (roots), well as well as small residues of coal.

Peter Burke

The photograph is considered a fake when it uncovers that it deceives sees who it how much to the scene that it affirms to represent. This disfigurement can occur at distinct moments, before the register the image, at the moment of the register, and after the image to be been registered. In recent years, they have fond of the public knowledge diverse cases where the images had been of some form modified the power that an image possesss, in many cases pass unobserved for us. The English historian Peter Burke, in its book ' ' Ocular&#039 witness; ' , sample that the image is a rich source to investigate the events. However the author makes an alert exception and for as the historical facts and its personages had constructed these documentations, looking for to stand out the aspects that not necessarily were the real facts. Exemplificando Burke shows as consecrated painters of the history of the art as Ticiano, that modifies the appearance of definitive king, Pope or prince in the intention of disfarar possible deformities of that they had ordered the picture. In such a way the image had contributed to create one another image of the Real. In the perspective of Burke, we would have to come back to see the images, since before the use writing as form of communication for all, this age the only way to spread out ideas and laws.

The current society is worried in producing images and not in reading them and discovering what its symbolic statements are affirming. Therefore, the authors most of the time say of the dependence of the society contemporary in relation to the images, that are used the all time, being essential in the daily one of the people consumes that them, without if worrying in reflecting of critical form to understand them. He is interesting to notice that the images important when are well used to better know the history and the reality of the present time.

Photographic Evidences

While we wait the elaboration of a critical systematics of the photographic and kinematic evidences, valley the penalty to remember five points, not only to the historians, but to any attemped person to see in photographs necessary registers of the past. It would like to detach, still, that Eduardo France Paiva, affirms that the iconography all brings inlaid the choices of the producer and the context in which it was conceived, but that it constitutes a quantity of possibilities and therefore has that to be explored with very well-taken care of. The image is not depleted in same itself. That is, it has always not to be apprehended beyond what it is, in it, to be given to read or to see. For the researcher of the image it is necessary to go beyond the explicit dimension most visible or of it. It has, as already it said before, gaps, silence and codes that they need to be deciphered, to be identified and to be understood. (PAIVA, 2004, p.19) One becomes necessary to affirm, that the cases are not rare where the photographs are taken as truth, therefore would be portraying faithful a time.

The historians do not have to leave themselves to lead for this trap. In accordance with the author, is important to remember that, the more colorful, most traced, more supposedly next to the reality, more dangerous the image if becomes. The iconographic document if presents as I break up of the Real, full of explicit or occult, voluntary or involuntary intentions of its producers. It fits to the researcher to interpret the directions that the social actors had wanted to attribute its acts. History if dislocates from the fact for versions on the fact. Also, when chores a posteriori, the images are reconstructed. To each time, they apply it the reading values of the gift, making with that it can mean a thing different.

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